Welcome, friend and inquirer of liberty. I’m your guide, Barry Hasan Durmaz.

I have created this blog as an ongoing work of repentance from my disobedient self-life—counterfeit spirituality, and a disobedient civil life—counterfeit America citizenship.

I am the first-born son of my Turkish father, Hasan Stephen Durmaz and my Scottish mother, Margaret Sutherland Butson. I am husband to my Japanese wife, Kyoko—teaching father to my five liberty-educated children: Victoria, Joy, Josiah, Liberty, and Christiana.

I hold a dual citizenship between the American Union of Free and Independent States and the Kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ. Upon learning of America’s captivity to rival deities of worldly business, oppressive institutional churches, and organized crime in civil government, I petitioned my Lord Christ for mercy. He granted me liberty as I have not known it previously.

In 2007, I exercised my economic liberty protected by the U.S. Constitution when I withheld consent to submit to domestic terrorism of the IRS and unlawful Administrative agencies.

In 2013, I exercised my spiritual liberty and liberty of conscience granted by the perfect law of Christ, when I forsook all earthly entanglements that hindered my faith walk with Christ. In leading my family, I threw off the yoke of anti-Christian institutional faith, fleeing the American Matrix for Japan—leaving behind my state-controlled business, house, and land. Against all opposition, we live triumphantly 60% below the US poverty level in an economy with a 20% higher cost of living.

My divinely ordained purpose for living? To help you exercise, promote and defend the authentic American Dream—the liberty to govern yourself.

God’s perfect law of liberty in the Lord Jesus Christ’s is the Law for His Church & kingdom—that is the pure gospel.

Man’s best law of liberty of the US Constitution is the law for authentic American civil life.

Hi, this is Victoria. I hold dual citizenship between the American Union of Free and Independent States and the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. I live in Battle Ground, Washington under the tutelage of my home-educating parents.

At age 12, I was certified as holding a Biblical Theistic Worldview by the Nehemiah Institute, in contrast with moderate Christian, secular humanism, and socialism.

I achieved first-year college spelling by age 14 and consider myself a junior word-smith. I am a lover of books like there is no tomorrow, writing letters and stories.  I am available to contract for your proof-reading projects.

In March of 2015, God drew me to Himself and made me His own by impressing on my mind how loving He is to me when all I really deserve is His wrath. I knew that I wanted to serve Jesus Christ who is so gracious and merciful and who took on Himself the wrath I deserved on the cross. So I devoted myself to crying out to God using the words of David from the Psalms. I did this three mornings. The afternoon of the third day I received salvation and assurance as I was walking and praying in the the forest by our home. Since then He has been my Lord and Savior, and I have been His grateful servant! He is my Shepherd and I am His lamb, and though I have often strayed, yet my Good Shepherd never fails to gently and tenderly bring me back again. I love Him and I know He is mine!

The Meaning Behind Our Life Purpose


My life and family exist to exercise, promote, and defend your greatest need for—liberty. God’s perfect law of liberty in the Lord Jesus Christ and man’s best law of liberty of the US Constitution.


The perfect law of liberty1 birthed at the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ in AD 33 gifted the world with two kinds of liberty, both of them internal to the individual:

• Spiritual liberty (freedom from sin)

• Liberty of conscience

At His resurrection, Christ demonstrated He alone is Lord and King over creation, both material and non-material. Everything belongs to Christ by right of creation. By right of redeeming man at the cross, Christ was granted power and authority both in heaven and earth to exercise His rulership for expansion of His kingdom on earth through His loyal subjects.

Before His ascension to His heavenly Throne from which He governs all things, He issued an Edict2 to His subjects to advance His kingdom.[/note] Christ is the first and last to gift the world with internal liberty, thus making mankind free to obey the internal law (Christ) of all that is good, right, and just. There is no higher purpose and mission for which to live in service for you, beloved reader.

After 1,789 years of spiritual liberty and 800 years of constitutional reasoning, man’s best law of the Constitution of the United States of America manifested, protecting at least four kinds of liberty external to the individual:

• Religious liberty

• Economic liberty

• Civil liberty

• Political liberty

Such protections are a first in history. Americans and immigrants to America enjoy the greatest expression of individual liberty under law. Americans working through their delegated representatives gifted its inhabitants (regardless of nationality, age, gender, religion, party, or position) with at least four kinds of external liberty. Hence, the US Constitution is the best expression of civil government in all the world. 3

The Constitution is the strike of balance between law and liberty; between the extreme of tyrannical rulers law and the extreme of anarchist without law. The Constitution is the people’s law of self-government—just enough restraint necessary to protect individual life, liberty, and property from those who would seek to steal, kill, and destroy these unalienable Rights. These just claims of life, liberty, and property are endowed by Jesus Christ, the Supreme Benevolent Dictator over all men and nations. America is the first voluntary union of people and their respective states to protect these few divine rights to all its inhabitants. Thus, American Christians under God’s perfect law and all Americans under man’s best law are free to “…proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants.”4


1 Luke 4:18-19; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1 & 13


Life Changing Encounters that shape me to a deep sense of purpose to overcome all opposition

What I unfold here is the fulfillment of Christ’s promise in Revelation 12: 10-11—the spiritual weapons of His blood over me, His testimony through me, and His death in me to overcome every conflict.

I am a second-generation American whose family is America’s melting pot: the first-born son to my Turkish immigrant father, Scottish immigrant mother, and husband to my Japanese wife.

In 1985 after two years’ service in the US Army in Germany, I served ten years in the National Guard and Reserves in my native Oregon. I was awarded Honorable Discharges, which is characteristic of soldiers who understand lawful authority from unlawful authority.

I founded and for 26 years operated a building maintenance company in the greater Portland area.

Unaware of the implications, my life journey would take on uncharted ventures that prepared me and fashioned the person I am today. To serve as an instrument of healing and restoration to divided individuals, a divided church body, and a divided American union of free people, free states.


In January 1996, I was introduced to America’s Christian History, Government, and Education by former Oregon State Representative Ron Sunseri. So inspired by truths heard for the first time concerning the true nature, cause, and distinctiveness of America’s founding era, I’ve become a life-long student—now over two decades.

In particular, the following individuals and ministries are largely responsible for the quality of Christian witness I am today:

This prepared me for imparting in my yet-to-be-born children a philosophy and methodology of education that is distinctly pertaining to Christ. The last 16 years have been invested with home-educating my five children in the art of Christian self-government and Christian liberty to sustain the American constitutional federal republic.

In 1997 I met an attractive Japanese Christian woman, sitting next to her while traveling by train to Seattle, Washington. After two months of friendship, we came to an agreement that we have been given as gifts to each other to accomplish together what is not possible without a dedicated helper and dedicated protector, provider, and patriot, the following year we married in Osaka, Japan.


Business on Christ’s Terms

During a 1999 visit to friends in Seattle, Washington, I shared problems I was having in my service company with employees. Ron Coverdale introduced me to the ministry of Dennis Peacocke and GoStrategic, (formerly Strategic Christian Services) when he gave me a copy of Dennis’ book, Doing Business God’s Way.

I read the book virtually in its entirety during the 3.5-hour train ride home. Inspired and full of hope of a Christ-centered way to conduct business I pursued Dennis’s ministry and enrolled in his School of Business and Biblical Economics, a 2-year correspondence training course.

There I learned biblical management principles and redemptive problem-solving solutions. This training was not an academic exercise but real-world application of Kingdom economics, which places serving people first and primary to true prosperity. While experiencing greater spiritual liberty and liberty of conscience, I felt free to implement greater expressions of economic liberty in my company. Over the course of 10+ years, I applied biblical truths of leading people and managing things.

At the same time, a most perplexing reality was developing around me. I was maturing as a problem-solver and communicator as a competitive advantage and customer retention. I found myself morphing into being much more about how than about what.

In a price-driven industry, I was much more interested in creating a first-of-its-kind contractor that pursued excellence in every area possible. I did not pursue price but offered more value and greater service. This worked for me in select cases where there was a good relational bond with my customers. But where the relationship was not important to so many property managers and owners I served, the bottom line prevailed. They made little to no time to invest in a long-term win-win working relationship.

Such cases are considered a win for the property manager or owner (or so they think) but as my mind was being renewed away from conformity to this world system, I was being transformed into the image of Christ expressed in and through my business.

Over 10 years of life-giving study and application, my personal energy shifted from emphasizing what we do to how we do what we do. Like many business owners, I was experiencing losses due to the market downturn in 2008. However, unlike many of those same owners, including friends, that did not ultimately disturb me, for I was delighting myself in taking every area of my company to go deep rather than wide, substance over superficiality, meat over milk, eternal investment over the temporal.

By the absolute sovereign power of Jesus Christ, I attribute the teaching ministry of Dennis Peacocke as responsible for the kind of person and distinct Christ follower I am today.


My gifts to bestow to society; delivered from slavery to liberty; the reward for governing one’s self is liberty

Between my awakening of the true nature of America and an American and the awakening of conducting business on the exclusive terms of the Lord Jesus Christ, I was naturally compelled to look for ways to throw off the yokes of anti-Christian bondage. This is the same spirit of liberty under law one discovers of America’s first settlers, the first governor, and first civil document of the Mayflower Pilgrims in 1620 and can read concerning in governor William Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation.

Do these entities exercise lawful authority to direct, regulate, control, and restrain my private business activity as delineated by the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution?

  • State of Oregon
  • IRS – Internal Revenue Service
  • Oregon Department of Revenue
  • City of Portland
  • CCB – Construction Contractors Board
  • OSHA – Occupational Safety & Hazard Administration
  • Compliance Depot
  • SAIF
  • DMV – Department of Motor Vehicles

As a result of my studies in American history and government and biblical principles of economics, I became increasingly aware of just how much I am at the beck-and-call to others outside my home to lead a quiet and peaceable life. Economic liberty as an effect of spiritual liberty and liberty of conscience was welling up in me so real that economic liberty had to have greater expression our of my life and business.

I was becoming aware of how so much under my care and responsibility was subject to total strangers for permission and approval in the marketplace and by civil jurisdictions. My studies were opening my eyes to the reality that if I need permission to provide for my family, or if I don’t possess exclusive use and disposition of my property, including my labor, then I was in a substantive fashion a slave to others. A slave is someone who does not own their labor. They work for the benefit of others.

I was beginning to see that my life possesses value only to the degree that I am assisting other entities and jurisdictions fulfill their agenda. I am only a cog in the wheel of a top-down planned society. My individuality is not valued independently of others but bound to abide by sanctions according to the dictates of others while my conscience is suppressed from determining the lawfulness or unlawfulness of my actions, according to plain English of America’s Supreme Law, the US Constitution. 

By an intent look at the founding of America and being saturated in what makes America unique among the world nations, I was captivated by how much I did not realize how great America is as established in her founding era from 1620-1820. The story of America affording the greatest individual liberty under law is a first in the world and has yet to be surpassed.

It did not take too long for studies in America’s Christian history and government to displace my ignorance of the evils of socialism that formed a web in my mind. Socialism is when the civil government is doing things for people, which is a contradiction to the Christian idea of self-government, and civil government’s role to protect the self-governing individual to do things for themselves.

I came to realized that everything that has my name on it, be it my family, my home, and land, and my business is not under the direction, regulation, control, or restraint of others unless I perpetrate a bonafide evil on the life, liberty, or property of another. Until and if that day comes, I am free to do good, to live a quiet and peaceful and productive life. Any limitation of my unalienable gifts without demonstrating in a court of law that I have diminished the same unalienable gifts of another is to be subject to a god-like authority pretending absolute control.

Without due process of law to substantiate that I am guilty of law-breaking, I have been compelled to submit to a usurpation of lawful authority, which is idolatry energized by a demon. I don’t serve demons any longer, but I most certainly serve only the One True God of Jesus Christ. Rendering to unlawful authority is idolatry! The only sure course of remedy on my part is to repent for submitting to unfruitful works of darkness.


Do these entities and official officers exercise lawful authority to direct, regulate, control, and restrain me as delineated under the New Covenant of Jesus Christ?

The Institutional Church

    • Springdale Community Church—its witness removed; doors closed
    • Mt. Hood Household of Faith Community Church—its witness removed; doors closed
    • Gresham Household of Faith Community Church—its witness removed; doors closed
    • Good Shepherd Community Church
    •  “Official” positions of religious leaders

After 51 years of American citizenship, over 30 years of Christian service, and 26 years of private contracting, my unalienable Rights to Liberty and Property endowed by Christ and protected by the US Constitution has repeatedly and severely been violated and criminalized by

 Worldly business leaders

     ✓ my marketplace solutions are not honored but slandered

     ✓ theft of the property of my reputation

     ✓ satanic ethics by Believer and unbeliever alike

    ✓ enriching the rival deity of worldly business

Oppressive religious leaders

     ✓ attempts made to neutralized and diminish my faith in the Lord Jesus Christ

     ✓ my contribution to the building up of the body of Christ is opposed by men impersonating ministers of Christ

     ✓ shepherds who strengthen the hands of evildoers

     ✓ willful failure to comply with the New Covenant of Jesus Christ

     ✓ willful failure to present distinctly spiritual counsel

     ✓ represent the rival deity of institutional religion

     ✓ ministry without the power of the Holy Spirit and therefore ministering oppression and condemnation

     ✓ three congregations shut down by the judgment of Christ’s Spirit

Tyrannical civil servants

     ✓ legalized theft of the property of my labor

     ✓ my good works to provide for family and employees is unlawfully regulated through administrative law

     ✓ the right to contract abolished

     ✓ meddlers rather than keepers of the peace

     ✓ forced under the threat of civil penalty to aggrandize the rival deity of state

Christ’s gift of my individual liberty has been trampled upon as if He never entered the world—His resurrection made a mockery. I live in a pagan land where men and women in business, church, and state control and regulate virtually every area of my life purpose and living—making themselves out to be false gods. 

Such expressions of authority are unlawful and bear no obligation upon me as a disciple of Christ to obey them for that would be giving way to wickedness and idolatry.5 Rather, reprove and expose unfruitful works of darkness. The witness of history testifies that you never, never, never submit to unlawful authority—doing so invites disunity, discord, and confusion to community life.


Delivered out of the bondage of “Egypt” to live in the perfect law of liberty in Christ

After years of mounting oppression from unlawful expressions of authority, I simply took to my knees in a concerted effort of secret prayer and cried out to my Lord. For six weeks beginning in February of 2011, I prayed for 2 to 2.5 hours in the morning for God to intervene in my life. On the morning of March 15th, I received unmistakable direction from the Holy Spirit to leave America and go be a Christian family in Japan. I forsook all to follow the Master of Liberty, Jesus Christ.

It took three months short of two years, that in December 2012 I cut off every entanglement of unlawful authority in my life. I exited the American matrix of:

    • entangling house and land ownership

    • entangling and invasive business ownership

    • oppressive institutional church membership

    • unlawful and invasive civil authority

I was liberated to follow Christ and leave behind a business which I started from scratch and operated for 26 years. In doing so, I went from a monthly salary of $6000 a month plus benefits to a teaching English and cutting bamboo trees in the mountains of Japan for less than $1000 a month. We live 60% below the US poverty level in a country that has a good 20% higher cost of living. I’ve never earned enough to pay our expenses, most especially food, and yet we’ve never been without a meal and never a bill paid late. We’ve repeatedly seen our Lord answer the smallest of specific prayer to the largest. We know the power of God by experience, not as doctrine alone to be studied.

I was liberated to follow Christ and leave behind a house and land after 8 years of mortgage payments totaling $110,000. After all, the land is being rented indefinitely from the county with no remedy to actually own the land. Therefore, the threat of losing one land is always looming overhead if you challenge unlawful authority.

I was liberated to follow Christ and leave behind an unlawful $500,000 income tax bill and unlawful levy on prop generated by computers and the unlawful administrative law of tax courts. The Constitutional protection of Common Law courts is criminally missing from our justice system. Administrative law is unlawful and enforces no compulsion on citizens to submit to unlawful authority. It is by the Peoples ignorance, slumber, and slothfulness about our law of the Constitution of the United States that peace and order are undermined. Yet a mighty awakening has begun to enforce OUR law. 

I was liberated to follow Christ and separate from an unlawful local church, though never rebelling against God. Biblical separation is not rebellion to God. The early settlers of America fled religious persecution because their liberty of conscience and religious liberty was continually violated by Satanic expressions of authority in the Church of England.

It is by the liberty of Christ’s Spirit I’ve chosen to suffer affliction wherever it exists among God’s people today and in history than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin. I’ve esteemed the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt. By faith, I forsook America, not fearing the wrath of the civil ruler, for I have endured because I see Christ who is invisible.


C.S. Lewis in Mere Christianity wrote, “Enemy-occupied territory—that is what this world is. Christianity is the story of how the rightful king has landed, you might say landed in disguise, and is calling us to take part in a great campaign of sabotage.” This is how I, Barry Hasan Durmaz, know I am serving King Jesus—messing up the works in enemy-occupied territory.

Therefore my probing questions to those in positions of authority that remain unanswered—How many Sundays of sermons, how many years of study, how many conferences attended, how many movies watched and books read must be consumed before works of faith are deployed? How long in your selfish ambition to relegate me and the multitudes to the legacy of the armchair quarterback and talk radio does it take before a person is valued and honored for applying and living out the truth? Their works of doubt and unbelief are a judgment against themselves. Such daily conundrums are self-deception—ever learning and never coming to the knowledge of truth.

My experience is that the freer I was becoming to live in the liberty where Christ set me free, the more I was the cause of trouble and problems. And this is quite true. The one who is truly free on the inside, possesses the authority to trouble unlawful counterfeit expressions of authority, all of which is idolatry and therefore under God’s judgment. 

   • idolatry of worldly business

   • idolatry of institutional church and false shepherds

   • idolatry of civil saviors

Our calling, sending, and provisioning to Japan is not official but spiritual. It is not institutional but organic and vital. It is not of men but of God the Holy Spirit, at which time my family enjoyed membership at the Gresham Household of Faith Community Church. When I shared my answered prayer and calling with the elders of GHOFCC they received it well and I believe were encouraged by it. I came forth with this clear direction from prayer only four days after the cataclysmic tsunami and earthquake struck Northern Japan in Sendai on March 11th 2011.

Yet, when I take positions in Christ against unlawful use of authority, religious men rise up in opposition. Therefore, Head of all authority, Jesus Christ, calls such wayward men to repent, and when they refuse to do so, He removes their place of witness for Him because they’ve ceased being a witness for Him. Therefore, Christ has protected and honored my taking positions in Him because:

Gresham Household of Faith Community Church no longer exists.

Mt. Hood Household of Faith Community Church no longer exists

Springdale Community Church longer exists.

When opponents to my liberty have not logic or reason they resort to slander, mischaracterization and threats, thus revealing themselves for their Satanic nature when the light of my life in Christ is used by a sovereign God to apply pressure to their life in bondage. History repeatedly proves that people don’t break God’s law of liberty, God’s law of liberty breaks the lawless.


In January 2016, it was three years my family lived in Japan; being purged from toxic religion while observing the unfolding demise of a divided America—a divided church.

These three years living up close and personal in one of the most deeply pagan nations of Japan have manifested a new dimension of spiritual warfare that I had not know previous to this Spirit-lead move. Spiritual warfare exists because there is a cosmic conflict between spiritual realities or personalities and realities or personalities which have the appearance of spirituality but are not—only externally religious. 

There is now a third major awakening in my life, The distinctly Christ and cross-centered ministry of T. Austin-Sparks:

The details of this personal awakening forthcoming…

Commencing 2016 at age 50, I am rebuilding my individual, family, business and ministry life on the exclusive terms of the perfect law of liberty in Jesus Christ because He is my head, not another man or woman, entity, institution, jurisdiction, bureaucracy, creed, et al. As Buckminster Fuller perhaps said it best: “You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that make the existing model obsolete.” Such modeling is the example of the Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, it’s time for creators to stop asking permission from corporate America, religious institutions, and civil bureaucracies — to go in advance of others, demonstrating authentic leadership.

Such building of personal and professional life is protected to the fullest expression under man’s best law of liberty of the United States Constitution. No other country has a claim to this rich treasure of honoring the unique contribution of all its people.

Therefore, according to the spirit of law codified in the Declaration of Independence, I uphold the letter of Supreme law in America, the US Constitution. It is the people’s law. “We the People…do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.”

The life purpose of the Supreme Law of America is found in its preamble, “to secure the blessings of liberty…”

I am liberated to live an abundant life—following the example of the freest man who ever lived, Jesus Christ. I no longer serve to aggrandize pagan business, church, and state interests. My life purpose exists independently of these spheres of authority, whose purpose is to do good and not evil in harmony with eternal laws and principles. This is well established in America’s founding and is the responsibility of each American to uphold and enforce our Supreme Law—of liberty.


The spirit of an American is to enforce what is distinctly unique to America—freedom to govern yourself. That’s exercising, promoting, and defending at least four kinds of external liberty:

     • Religious liberty

     • Economic liberty

     • Civil liberty

     • Political liberty

The spirit of an American Christian is to equally enforce the distinctiveness of Constitutional liberties, though secondary to what is primary or causative. What gives life to our external liberties is the two-fold reality of Christ’s gospel—spiritual liberty and liberty of conscience. Without these two internal liberties in full force in the individual, a form of bondage is the result of any external liberty.

Authenticity is impossible without embracing the American spirit birthed between the victory won in the War for Independence (spirit of the law) and the Constitutional Convention (letter of the law).

To live in harmony with God’s perfect law of liberty in Jesus Christ and enforce man’s best law of liberty of the US Constitution. Anything less is a counterfeit and bastard of what constitutes an American Christian. Here is what will make America great again! Here is how America is a light unto the nations of the world.


Experience is a value extremely higher than the man with words alone

Barry Durmaz is now transformed by obeying the Sacred Law of Liberty.

It’s been said life is war and the natural condition of the garden is not beautiful flowers but weeds. Literally, everything around you is in opposition to you living in full harmony with your life purpose and mission.

I have been left along the road of life for half-dead and even murdered in non-material ways for simply committing the “crime” of being myself. That is how wicked the opposition works through others to suppress your unique calling. The exceptionally good news, however, is that I have prevailed over darkness and bondage by the liberating power of resurrection life.

To lead you on the path of the sacred fire of liberty, you want someone who has been in the fight; who is intimate with the tactics of the enemy and can prevail over them. I have scars for being in that fight of faith to exercise, promote, and defend humanity’s greatest need—Liberty.

Navigating the opposition peacefully is the key to mastering the art of fighting without fighting.

Until your set free of invisible chains which bind you down from fulfilling your life purpose, the gift of your time and talents are being squandered. Your destiny is hijacked by unseen forces.

My life is transformed by taking hold of the sacred fire of liberty. Follow me to experience internal and external transformation by the Sacred Fire of Liberty.

Follow me as I follow Liberty. Liberty is Christ for your spiritual life. Liberty is the Constitution for your religious, economic, civil, and political life.


  1. Luke 4:18-19; 2 Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1 & 13
  2. “Train students to be as Me—a liberated man among captives of the world system” Matthew 28:18-20
  3. “[America] has in its keeping ‘the last word in human political institutions,’ — the Republican form of Government.” Richard Frothingham, Rise of the Republic of the United States, 1890.

    “…the most perfect federal constitution that ever existed…” Alexis de Tocqueville; Democracy in America, Chapter 8

  4. Leviticus 25:10
  5. Rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil Do you want to be unafraid of the authority? Do what is good, and you will have praise from the same. For he is God’s minister for your good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God’s minister, an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil” Romans 13:3-4

    “But this occurred because of false brethren secretly brought in (who came in by stealth to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage), to whom we did not yield submission even for an hour, that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.” Galatians 2:3-4

    “God has always preserved freedom, and the power of self-government in man.” “And for this reason too,  magistrates themselves, having laws as a clothing of righteousness whenever they act in a just and legitimate manner, shall not be called in question for their conduct, nor be liable to punishment. But whatsoever they do to the subversion of justice, iniquitously, and impiously, and illegally, and tyrannically, in these things shall they also perish; for the just judgment of God comes equally upon all, and in no case is defective.” Irenaeus, Against Heresies

    “Well, if I have found what your law prohibits to be good, as one who has arrived at such a previous opinion, has it not lost its power to debar me from it, though that very thing, if it were evil, it would justly forbid to me? If your law has gone wrong, it is of human origin … nor does a citizen render a true subjection to the law, if he does not know the nature of the thing on which the punishment is inflicted. It is not enough that a law is just, nor that the judge should be convinced of its justice; those from whom obedience is expected should have that conviction too. Nay, a law lies under strong suspicions which does not care to have itself tried and approved: it is a positively wicked law, if, unproved, it tyrannizes over men.” Tertullian

    “A law, properly speaking, regards first and foremost the order to the common good. Now to order anything to the common good, belongs either to the whole people, or to someone who is the viceregent of the whole people. And therefore the making of a law belongs either to the whole people or to a public personage who has care of the whole people: since in all other matters the directing of anything to the end concerns him to whom the end belongs.” Thomas Aquinas; Summa Theologica